Latex barriers, such as condoms and dental dams, offer fantastic protection against most sexually transmitted infections (STIs). They are not 100 percent effective, however, and there are even some STIs for which latex poses no obstacle. Because barriers only cover a portion of the genital area, they do not offer sufficient protection against scabies or pubic lice, both of which are caused by infestations of tiny arthropods.
Both scabies and pubic lice are treated with topical medications. A Planned Parenthood health center, as well as other health care providers, clinics, and health departments, can provide testing and treatment. Follow treatment instructions to the letter to ensure success. During this time, you can take actions to prevent reinfection, including vacuuming floors and cleaning rooms, and thoroughly washing all clothing, towels, and bedding in hot water. Your sexual partner(s) might also need to receive treatment.
Now let’s learn more about both specific STIs.
Sarcoptes scabiei, the mite that causes scabies. Image from the Public Health Image Library.
Three-hundred million people carry the eight-legged mite that causes scabies, Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis. While it’s so small that you need a microscope to see it, it causes an itchy condition that you can definitely feel. The female mite burrows under the skin, usually starting between the fingers and then spreading to the rest of the body, digging until she dies and laying eggs along the way. When the eggs hatch, the nymphs travel to the surface of the skin, where they may transfer to another host or reinfect the original host. Continue reading
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Tagged barrier methods, condoms, conscientious objectors, dental dams, evolution, head lice, itch mite, latex barriers, lice, louse, mite, mites, Phthirus pubis, Pthirus pubis, pubic lice, pubic louse, Sarcoptes scabiei, scabies, sexually transmitted infections, STD, STDs, STI, STIs, World War I, WWI
Neisseria gonorrhoeae, the bacteria species that causes gonorrhea, is pictured here in a photograph taken with a scanning electron microscope. Projecting from the organism’s surface are many pili, powerful appendages that enable the bacteria to adhere to human cells. Image from the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering.
April is STD Awareness Month, but this blog has sought to increase your awareness of sexually transmitted infections on a monthly basis. So far in 2011 we’ve pointed the spotlight at human papillomavirus, barrier methods, and herpes. This month’s installment will focus on gonorrhea, colloquially known as “the clap,” a common sexually transmitted infection caused by sneaky bacteria called Neisseria gonorrhoeae. It is spread by vaginal, anal, and oral sex, and can infect certain cells in the throat, mouth, rectum, urethra, or cervix. It can also be transmitted manually to infect the eye. If you are sexually active, you can reduce risk of transmission by consistently and correctly using latex barriers such as condoms and dental dams.
Four out of five females infected with gonorrhea do not experience symptoms – males, however, usually do, but they can be mild and therefore easy to overlook. Symptoms can appear within a month, and might include painful or frequent urination, vaginal or penile discharge, painful bowel movements, itching, or sore throat. Additionally, females can experience abdominal pain, fever, irregular menstruation, or bleeding between periods. In pregnant women, untreated gonorrhea infections can lead to complications such as premature labor or stillbirth. The infection can also be passed from mother to infant during delivery. Continue reading
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Tagged antibiotic resistant gonorrhea, antibiotics, antigenic variation, ARG, bacteria, bacterium, DGI, disseminated gonococcal infection, epididymitis, evolution, fimbriae, flagella, flagellum, GC, gonococci, gonococcus, gonorrhea, HIV, immune response, immune system, microbe, microorganism, N. gonorrhoeae, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Opa protein, Opa proteins, pelvic inflammatory disease, PID, pili, pilus, retractile pili, sexually transmitted disease, sexually transmitted infection, STD, STI, sulfa drugs, sulfanilamide, sulfonamides, the clap, type IV pili