Treponema pallidum, the causative agent of syphilis, is seen in this electron micrograph adhering to a surface with the end of its structure. Image: Public Health Image Library, CDC
When syphilis first descended upon Europe, it was seen as a new plague, and anxiety and blame coalesced around this mysterious scourge. Was it a punishment from God? Was it introduced by a hated Other? Was it caused by the stars’ alignment or the presence of “bad air”? The panic it provoked foreshadowed the hysteria that surrounded the emergence of HIV in the 1980s, as syphilitics were discriminated against, feared, or thought to have received punishment for their “unbridled lust.”
We now know that syphilis is not caused by supernatural forces, foreigners, or “bad air,” but rather by a species of spiral-shaped bacteria called Treponema pallidum, which can cause infections in the vagina, anus, urethra, or penis, as well as the lips and mouth. It is mostly spread by sexual contact – vaginal or anal intercourse, as well as oral sex – in which one person comes into contact with a syphilis sore. These sores can be hidden on the cervix or in the vagina, urethra, rectum, or mouth, making it not immediately apparent that one is infected with syphilis. Syphilis can also spread to a fetus during pregnancy. Sexually active people can reduce their risk of contracting syphilis by using latex barrier methods such as condoms or dental dams. Continue reading
Posted in Sexual Health
Tagged antibiotic, antibiotics, antigenic variation, arsenic, bacteria, chancre, Great Pox, gummatous syphilis, latent syphilis, lesion, lesions, malaria, malaria therapy, mercury, Neosalvarsan, Paul Ehrlich, penicillin, primary syphilis, Salvarsan, secondary syphilis, sexually transmitted disease, sexually transmitted diseases, sexually transmitted infection, sexually transmitted infections, spirochete, STD, STDs, STI, STIs, syphilis, T. pallidum, tertiary syphilis, Treponema pallidum, ulcer
Sexually transmitted infections can be caused by viruses, bacteria, protozoans, and even animals. Bacterial vaginosis and chancroid are both infections caused by bacteria, which means that they can be treated with antibiotics. While bacterial vaginosis only affects people with vaginas, chancroid disproportionately affects people with penises. You can seek diagnosis and treatment for bacterial vaginosis and chancroid at a Planned Parenthood health center, as well as health clinics, private health-care providers, and health departments.
Bacterial vaginosis is caused by an imbalance of bacteria species in the vagina. Image: renjith krishnan / FreeDigitalPhotos.net
Bacterial vaginosis seems to be most commonly caused by the bacteria species Gardnerella vaginalis. Scientists aren’t quite sure how this infection is caused, but risk seems to correlate with a change in sexual partners, having multiple sexual partners, douching, or using an intrauterine device; it can also occur in females who have never been sexually active. It is more common in pregnant women. There is no counterpart to this infection in males, although G. vaginalis can be found in their urethras; this raises the possibility that bacterial vaginosis can be sexually transmitted, in which case it could be directly transmitted between two females or indirectly transmitted from one female to another via a male.
Bacterial vaginosis seems to result from an imbalance in the vaginal flora (“flora” is a somewhat fanciful term for the bacteria that live in your body; under normal circumstances they are harmless and even beneficial). Vaginas usually are habitat to a population of bacteria called Lactobacillus, which produce hydrogen peroxide as a byproduct. When the number of Lactobacillus declines, G. vaginalis is able to move in on Lactobacillus’ old territory. The decrease in Lactobacillus and increase in G. vaginalis leads to a rise in the vagina’s pH. The new vaginal environment is less acidic and more alkaline; a vaginal pH of more than 4.5 is one criterion for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis. Another symptom includes a vaginal discharge that may smell somewhat fishy. There might also be genital itching or pain during urination. It is also possible not to have symptoms. Continue reading
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Tagged antibiotic, antibiotics, bacteria, bacterial vaginosis, chancroid, circumcision, discharge, douche, douching, erythromycin, G. vaginalis, Gardnerella vaginalis, H. ducreyi, Haemophilus ducreyi, intrauterine device, IUD, Lactobacillus, lesion, lymph node, lymph nodes, metronidazole, pelvic inflammatory disease, PID, pregnancy, pus, sexually transmitted disease, sexually transmitted diseases, sexually transmitted infection, sexually transmitted infections, sore, STD, STDs, STI, STIs, ulcer, uncircumcised, vagina, vaginal bacteria, vaginal discharge, vaginal flora, yogurt
Cranberry products have a reputation for fighting urinary tract infections. But is this reputation deserved? Image: FreeDigitalPhotos net
An increased urge to urinate. A burning sensation when you do. These are two of the signs of a urinary tract infection (UTI), an incredibly unpleasant condition that can seem to come out of nowhere. Anyone can get a UTI, but among adults they are about 50 times more common in females than in males. Certain microorganisms cause these infections, often when bacteria from feces are introduced into the urinary tract. Although symptoms often clear up without medical intervention, it is very important to seek treatment for a persistent UTI because the infection could spread and become much more serious. (If you are or have been sexually active, it is also important to make sure you don’t actually have a sexually transmitted infection.)
Cranberry products – either as juice (sweetened, unsweetened, or blended with other fruit juices) or capsules – are considered by many to be an effective home remedy for UTIs. While cranberries are a well-known and accessible treatment, the evidence for their efficacy is not very strong. Why, then, are they such a popular treatment? It could be due simply to the placebo effect, an amazing phenomenon in which our expectations help shape our experiences. It could be that symptoms often clear up on their own, but we attribute our improvement to whatever remedies we happened to be trying at the time. It could be that drinking extra fluids (e.g., cranberry juice) helps flush the bacteria from our bodies as we urinate more. Or, it’s possible that cranberries do help clear up UTIs, but we just don’t have solid evidence yet. Continue reading
Posted in Sexual Health
Tagged antibiotic, antibiotic resistance, antibiotics, bacteria, Cochrane Collaboration, cranberries, cranberry, cranberry capsules, cranberry juice, E. coli, Escherichia coli, fimbriae, folk remedies, folk remedy, home remedies, home remedy, immune response, immune system, inflammation, pili, pilus, placebo, placebo effect, randomized clinical trial, rUTIs, UPEC, urinary tract infection, urinary tract infections, urine, uropathogenic E. coli, UTI, UTIs